Analyses showed that victim-survivors face significant barriers in accessing this visa. Proving violence and an inability to return to their country of origin due to social stigma are complex and challenging factors for ethnic migrant women. The cultural reasons discussed in this article include that psychological abuse is dominant, violence occurs transnationally, and the social stigma experienced extends well beyond the victim-survivors’ individual and immediate circumstances.


Creator | Kaihanga
Irene Ayallo and Tyler Kelly
Year of Creation | Tau
Creative Commons Licence
Attribution CC BY
Keywords | Kupu
family violence and immigration policy; ethnic women and family violence; immigration and social work
Main Language | Reo Matua
Submitter's Rights | Nga Tika o te Kaituku
I represent the publisher or owner organisation of this resource
This Research has
been formally reviewed for publication by academics at a university
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